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Peruvian Communist Party
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Partido Comunista Peruano
Peruvian Communist Party

Leader   Renn Raffo Muoz
Founded   1928 (PSP)
1930 (PCP)
Headquarters   Lima, Peru
Ideology   Communism
International affiliation   None
Website
pcperuano.com
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The Peruvian Communist Party (in Spanish: Partido Comunista Peruano) is a communist party in Peru. It was founded in 1928 by Jos Carlos Maritegui, under the name Partido Socialista del Per. In 1930 the name was changed to PCP. PCP is often identified as PCP [Unidad], to separate it from other parties with similar names.

Jorge Del Prado was the general secretary between 1966 and 1991. In 1980 the PCP and other left-wing groups formed the United Left.

The main political base of the PCP is currently located at Plaza Ramn Castilla, Lima and is led by Renn Raffo Muoz. PCP publishes Unidad (Unity) and Nuestra Bandera (Our Flag).
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Communist Party of Peru - Red Fatherland (in Spanish: Partido Comunista del Per - Patria Roja) is a political party in Peru founded in 1970, through a split in the Peruvian Communist Party - Red Flag. It is led by Alberto Moreno, Jorge Hurtado Pozo and Rolando Brea.

In 1980 it participated in the general elections on the lists of UNIR. In the same year it became one of the founding organizations of the United Left (IU). After the downfall of IU, PCdelP-PR launched New Left Movement (MNI) as its electoral front. Currently PCdelP-PR is the major left group in the country. It participates in the build-up of the Broad Left Front (FAI).

The general secretary of the party, Alberto Moreno, was the FAI candidate in the 2006 presidential elections.

The official organ of the Central Committee of the party is called Patria Roja.[1]
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Communism in Peru
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  (Redirected from Communist Party of Peru)Republic of Peru


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Several different left-oriented organizations refer to themselves as the Communist Party of Peru (in Spanish: Partido Comunista del Per) or similar names. Some are still active, others have disappeared and some joined the ranks of Shining Path or the MRTA, which participated in the internal conflict in Peru. Many of the parties are known by nicknames relating to their respective newspapers.

According to Broadleft.org, the oldest communist party in Peru is the Partido Comunista Peruano (PCP - Unidad),[1] founded in 1928, by Jos Carlos Maritegui, under the name Partido Socialista del Per.[2] In 1930 the name was changed to PCP. PCP is often identified as PCP [Unidad], to separate it from other parties with similar names. Jorge Del Prado was the general secretary between 1966 and 1991. The main political base of PCP-Unidad is currently located at Plaza Ramn Castilla, Lima and is led by Renn Raffo Muoz. PCP publishes Unidad ("Unity") and Nuestra Bandera ("Our Banner").[2]

Another party that also considers itself the Communist Party of Peru is the Partido Comunista del Per - Patria Roja,[3] founded in 1970, and now, as of 2006, headed by Alberto Moreno. It descends from the mainstream fraction of PCP-Bandera Roja, which, in turn, originated as a Maoist fraction within the Partido Comunista Peruano.[2]

Both PCP-Bandera Roja and PCP-Unidad are named after their traditional press organs. The name "PCP-Unidad" is an informal designation; the official name of the PCP-Unidad is simply "Partido Comunista Peruano". There was a fraction called PCP-Mayora around 1980: its members considered that PCP-Unidad had taken a Eurocommunist turn, while - they themselves preferred a more hard-line Soviet stance.

There are a few more groups that also consider themselves the Communist Party of Peru. The best known is the group generally referred to as the "Shining Path" (a name which the group itself does not use).[2] This armed group, regarded by Peru as a terrorist organization, is an offshoot of PCP-Bandera Roja, having splintered from it in the early 1970s.[2] The "Shining Path" considers PCP-Patria Roja and PCP-Unidad to be revisionist; it has assassinated several of their militants and elected officials.

[edit]
Political parties that have used the name

The Peruvian Communist Party was founded with the name of Peruvian Socialist Party (Partido Socialista del Per) by Jos Carlos Maritegui, it is considered the first Communist Party of Peru.

Some political parties that also claimed the name (or its true meaning):
Communist Party - Red Star
Communist Party of Peru - Red Fatherland
Communist Party of Peru (Marxist-Leninist)
Peruvian Communist Party - Red Flag
Revolutionary Communist Party - Red Trench
Proletarian Party of Peru
Revolutionary Communist Party (Working Class)
Revolutionary Socialist Party (Marxist-Leninist)
Revolutionary Vanguard (Communist Proletarian)
Revolutionary Workers' Party (Peru)
Worker Peasant Student and Popular Front
Workers Revolutionary Party (Peru)

The United Left movement was a loose alliance of several of these leftist parties that gained a strong political presence in the 1980s.
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Shining Path
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Communist Party of Peru

Flag of the Communist Party of Peru
Active   1980–present
Country   Peru
Allegiance   Maoism
Branch   The People's Guerrilla Army is the official name of the armed branch of the party.
Role   Guerrilla warfare
Size   Probably a few hundred fighters
Garrison/HQ   Unknown, probably the Upper Huallaga Valley
Nickname   Sendero Luminoso, Shining Path
Motto   "Long live the People's War," "It is Right to Rebel"
Colors   Red
Anniversaries   May 17, 1980
Equipment   Small arms and dynamite
Engagements   Internal conflict in Peru
Commanders
Current
commander   Comrade Artemio
Notable
commanders   Abimael Guzmn
(imprisoned)
scar Ramrez
(imprisoned)
Insignia
Identification
symbol   Hammer and sickle
Identification
symbol   Initials "PCP"


The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish: Partido Comunista del Per), more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla organization in Peru. When it first launched the internal conflict in Peru in 1980, its stated goal was to replace what it saw as bourgeois democracy with "New Democracy." The Shining Path believed that by imposing a dictatorship of the proletariat, inducing cultural revolution, and eventually sparking world revolution, they could arrive at pure communism. The Shining Path also believed that all existing socialist countries were revisionist, and that the Shining Path itself was the vanguard of the world communist movement. The Shining Path's ideology and tactics have been influential on other Maoist insurgent groups, notably the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) and other Revolutionary Internationalist Movement-affiliated organizations.[1]

Widely condemned for its brutality,[2][3] including violence deployed against peasants, trade union organizers, popularly elected officials and the general civilian population,[4] the Shining Path is regarded by Peru as a terrorist organization. The group is on the U.S. Department of State's list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations,[5] and the European Union[6] and Canada[7] likewise regard them as a terrorist organization and prohibit providing funding or other financial support.

Since the capture of its leader Abimael Guzmn in 1992, the Shining Path has only been sporadically active.[8] Certain factions of the Shining Path now claim to fight in order to force the government to reach a peace treaty with the rebels. Similar to the larger FARC in Colombia, some factions of Shining Path have reinvented themselves as a highly efficient cocaine smuggling operation, with an ostensibly paternalistic relationship to villagers.[9]Contents [hide]
1 Name
2 Origins
3 Guerrilla war
3.1 Level of support
4 Government response and abuses
5 Capture of Guzmn and collapse
6 21st century and resurgence
7 Notes
8 References
9 Fiction
10 External links


[edit]
Name

The common name of this group, the Shining Path, distinguishes it from several other Peruvian communist parties with similar names (see Communism in Peru). It originates from a maxim of Jos Carlos Maritegui, founder of the original Peruvian Communist Party in the 1920s: "El Marxismo-Leninismo abrir el sendero luminoso hacia la revolucin" ("Marxism-Leninism will open the shining path to revolution").[2] This maxim was featured in the masthead of the newspaper of a Shining Path front group, and Peruvian communist groups are often distinguished by the names of their publications. The followers of the group are generally called senderistas. All documents, periodicals and other materials produced by the organization are signed by the Communist Party of Peru (PCP). Academics often refer to them as PCP-SL.

[edit]
Origins

The Shining Path was founded in the late 1960s by former university philosophy professor Abimael Guzmn (referred to by his followers by his nom de guerre Presidente Gonzalo), whose teachings created the foundation for its militant Maoist doctrine. It was an offshoot of the Communist Party of Peru — Bandera Roja ("red flag"), which in turn split from the original Peruvian Communist Party, a derivation of the Peruvian Socialist Party founded by Jos Carlos Maritegui in 1928.[10]

The Shining Path first established a foothold in San Cristbal of Huamanga University, in Ayacucho, where Guzmn taught philosophy. The university had recently reopened after being closed for about half a century, and many students of the newly-educated class adopted the Shining Path's radical ideology. Between 1973 and 1975, the Shining Path gained control of the student councils in the Universities of Huancayo and La Cantuta, and developed a significant presence in the National University of Engineering in Lima and the National University of San Marcos, the oldest university in the Americas. Sometime later, it lost many student elections in the universities, including Guzmn's own San Cristbal of Huamanga, and decided to abandon the universities and reconsolidate itself.

Beginning on March 17, 1980, the Shining Path held a series of clandestine meetings in Ayacucho, known as the Central Committee's second plenary.[11] It formed a "Revolutionary Directorate" that was political and military in nature, and ordered its militias to transfer to strategic areas in the provinces to start the "armed struggle". The group also held its "First Military School" where militants were instructed in military tactics and weapons use. They also engaged in the "criticism and self-criticism," a Maoist practice intended to purge bad habits and avoid repeating mistakes. During the First Military School, members of the Central Committee came under heavy criticism. Guzmn did not, and he emerged from the First Military School as the clear leader of the Shining Path.[12]

[edit]
Guerrilla war
Main article: Internal conflict in Peru
 
Shining Path poster supporting an electoral boycott

When Peru's military government allowed elections for the first time in a dozen years in 1980, the Shining Path was one of the few leftist political groups that declined to take part, and instead opted to launch a guerrilla war in the highlands of Ayacucho Region. On May 17, 1980, the eve of the presidential elections, it burned ballot boxes in the town of Chuschi, Ayacucho. It was the first "act of war" by the Shining Path. However, the perpetrators were quickly caught, additional ballots were shipped to Chuschi, the elections proceeded without further incident, and the incident received very little attention in the Peruvian press.[13]

Throughout the 1980s, the Shining Path grew in both the territory it controlled and the number of militants in its organization, particularly in the Andean highlands. It gained support from local peasants by filling the political void left by the central government providing popular justice. They killed managers of the state-controlled farming collectives and well-to-do merchants, who were unpopular with poor rural dwellers.[14] These actions caused the peasantry of many Peruvian villages to express some sympathy for the Shining Path, especially in the impoverished and neglected regions of Ayacucho, Apurmac, and Huancavelica. At times, the civilian population of small neglected towns participated in such popular trials, especially when the victims of the trials were widely disliked.[15] However, only a small minority of peasants were ever as dogmatically Maoist as the Shining Path cadre.[16]
 
Poster of Abimael Guzmn celebrating five years of war

The Shining Path's credibility was also bolstered by the government's initially tepid response to the insurgency. For over a year, the government refused to declare a state of emergency in the region affected by the Shining Path's actions as the Interior Minister, Jos Mara de la Jara, believed the group could be easily defeated through Police actions.[17] Additionally, the civilian president, Fernando Belande Terry, who returned to power in 1980, was reluctant to cede authority to the armed forces, as his first government had ended in a military coup. This gave the impression that the President was unconcerned about the activities of the Shining Path. The result was that, to the peasants in the areas where the Shining Path was active, the state gave the appearance of impotence or lack of interest in the region. However, it became evident that the Shining Path represented a clear threat to the state. On December 29, 1981 the government declared an "emergency zone" in the three Andean regions of Ayacucho, Huancavelica and Apurmac, and granted the military the power to arbitrarily detain any suspicious person. The military used this power extremely heavy-handedly, arresting scores of innocent people, at times subjecting them to torture[18] and rape.[19] Police, military forces and members of the Popular Guerrilla Army (Ejrcito Guerrillero Popular, or EGP) carried out several massacres throughout the conflict. Military personnel took to wearing black ski-masks in order to protect their identities and, therefore their safety and that of their families. Masks were also used to hide the identity of military personnel as they committed crimes.

In some areas, peasants formed anti-Shining Path patrols, called rondas. They were generally poorly-equipped despite donations of guns from the armed forces. Nevertheless, the Shining Path guerrillas were militarily attacked by the rondas. The first such reported attack was in January 1983 near Huata, when ronderos killed 13 senderistas; in February in Sacsamarca, rondas stabbed and killed the Shining Path commanders of that area. In March 1983, ronderos brutally killed Olegario Curitomay, one of the commanders of the town of Lucanamarca. They took him to the town square, stoned him, stabbed him, set him on fire, and finally shot him.[20] As a response, in April, the Shining Path entered the province of Huanca Sancos and the towns of Yanaccollpa, Ataccara, Llacchua, Muylacruz and Lucanamarca, and killed 69 people in what became known as the Lucanamarca massacre. This was the first massacre by the Shining Path of the peasant community. Other incidents followed, such as the one in Hauyllo, Tambo District, La Mar Province, Ayacucho Region. In that community, the Shining Path killed 47 peasants, including 14 children aged between four and fifteen.[21] Additional massacres by the Shining Path occurred, such as the one in Marcas on August 29, 1985.[22][23]
 
Areas where the Shining Path was active in Peru

The Shining Path's attacks were not limited to the countryside. It mounted attacks against the infrastructure in Lima, killing civilians in the process. In 1983, it sabotaged several electrical transmission towers, causing a citywide blackout, and set fire to the Bayer industrial plant, destroying it completely. That same year, it set off a powerful bomb in the offices of the governing party, Popular Action. Escalating its activities in Lima, in June 1985 it again blew up electricity transmission towers in Lima, producing a blackout, and detonated car bombs near the government palace and the justice palace. It also was believed to be responsible for bombing a shopping mall.[24] At the time, President Fernando Belande Terry was receiving the Argentine president Ral Alfonsn. In one of its last attacks in Lima, on July 16, 1992, the group detonated a powerful bomb on Tarata Street in the upscale Miraflores District in Lima,[25] killing 25 people and injuring an additional 155.[26]

During this period, the Shining Path also conducted many selective assassinations targeting specific individuals, notably leaders of other leftist groups, local political parties, labor unions, and peasant organizations, some of whom were anti-Shining Path Marxists.[4] On April 24, 1985, in the midst of presidential elections, it tried to assassinate Domingo Garca Rada, the president of the Peruvian National Electoral Council, severely injuring him and mortally wounding his driver. In 1988, Constantin Gregory, an American citizen working for the United States Agency for International Development, was assassinated. Two French aid workers were killed on December 4 that same year.[27] In August 1991, the group killed one Italian and two Polish priests in Ancash Region.[28] The following February, it assassinated Mara Elena Moyano, a well-known community organizer in Villa El Salvador, a vast shantytown in Lima.[29]

By 1991, the Shining Path had control of much of the countryside of the center and south of Peru and had a large presence in the outskirts of Lima. As the organization grew in power, a cult of personality grew around Guzmn. The official ideology of the Shining Path ceased to be 'Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tse-tung thought', and was instead referred to as 'Marxism-Leninism-Maoism-Gonzalo thought'.[30] The Shining Path also engaged in armed conflicts with Peru's other major guerrilla group, the Tpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA)[31] and with campesino self-defense groups organized by the Peruvian armed forces.

Although the extent of the Shining Path's atrocities and the reliability of reports remains a matter of controversy, the organization's use of violence is well documented. The Shining Path frequently participated in particularly brutal methods of killing of its victims and explicitly rejected the very idea of human rights. A Shining Path document stated:
We start by not ascribing to either Universal Declaration of Human Rights or the Costa Rica [Convention on Human Rights], but we have used their legal devices to unmask and denounce the old Peruvian state. . . . For us, human rights are contradictory to the rights of the people, because we base rights in man as a social product, not man as an abstract with innate rights. "Human rights" do not exist except for the bourgeois man, a position that was at the forefront of feudalism, like liberty, equality, and fraternity were advanced for the bourgeoisie of the past. But today, since the appearance of the proletariat as an organized class in the Communist Party, with the experience of triumphant revolutions, with the construction of socialism, new democracy and the dictatorship of the proletariat, it has been proven that human rights serve the oppressor class and the exploiters who run the imperialist and landowner-bureaucratic states. Bourgeois states in general. . . . Our position is very clear. We reject and condemn human rights because they are bourgeois, reactionary, counterrevolutionary rights, and are today a weapon of revisionists and imperialists, principally Yankee imperialists.

– Communist Party of Peru, Sobre las Dos Colinas[32]


[edit]
Level of support

While the Shining Path quickly seized control of large areas of Peru, it soon faced serious problems. The Shining Path's Maoism was never popular. It never had the support of the majority of the Peruvian people. According to opinion polls, 15% of the population considered subversion to be justifiable in June 1988 while 17% considered it justifiable in 1991.[33] In June 1991, "the total sample disapproved of the Shining Path by an 83 to 7 percent margin, with 10 percent not answering the question. Among the poorest, however, only 58% stated disapproval of the Shining Path; 11 percent said they had a favorable opinion of the Shining Path, and some 31 percent would not answer the question."[34] A September 1991 poll found that 21 percent of those polled in Lima believed that the Shining Path did not kill and torture innocent people. The same poll found that 13% believed that society would be more just if the Shining Path won the war and 22% believed society would be equally just under the Shining Path as it was under the government.[34]

Many peasants were unhappy with the Shining Path's rule for a variety of reasons, such as its disrespect for indigenous culture and institutions,[35] and the brutality of its "popular trials" that sometimes included "slitting throats, strangulation, stoning, and burning."[36][37] While punishing and even killing cattle thieves was popular in some parts of Peru, the Shining Path also killed peasants and popular leaders for even minor offenses.[38] Peasants were also offended by the rebels' injunction against burying the bodies of Shining Path victims.[39]

The Shining Path also became disliked for its policy of closing small and rural markets in order to end small-scale capitalism and to starve Lima.[40][41] As a Maoist organization, it strongly opposed all forms of capitalism, and also followed Mao's dictum that guerrilla warfare should start in the countryside and gradually choke off the cities. Peasants, many of whose livelihoods depended on trade in the markets, rejected such closures. In several areas of Peru, the Shining Path also launched unpopular campaigns, such as a prohibition on parties[42] and the consumption of alcohol.[43]

[edit]
Government response and abuses

In 1991, President Alberto Fujimori issued a law[44] that gave the rondas a legal status, and from that time they were officially called Comits de auto defensa ("Committees of Self Defence"). They were officially armed, usually with 12-gauge shotguns, and trained by the Peruvian Army. According to the government, there were approximately 7,226 comits de auto defensa as of 2005;[45] almost 4,000 are located in the central region of Peru, the stronghold of the Shining Path.

The Peruvian government also clamped down on the Shining Path in other ways. Military personnel were dispatched to areas dominated by the Shining Path, especially Ayacucho, to fight the rebels. Ayacucho itself was declared an emergency zone, and constitutional rights were suspended in the area.

Initial government efforts to fight the Shining Path were not very effective or promising. Military units engaged in many human rights violations, which caused the Shining Path to appear in the eyes of many as the lesser of two evils. They used excessive force and killed many innocent civilians. Government forces destroyed villages and killed campesinos suspected of supporting the Shining Path. They eventually lessened the pace at which the armed forces committed atrocities such as massacres. Additionally, the state began the widespread use of intelligence agencies in its fight against the Shining Path. However, atrocities were committed by the National Intelligence Service and the Army Intelligence Service, notably the La Cantuta massacre and the Barrios Altos massacre, both of which were committed by Grupo Colina.[46][47]

After the collapse of the Fujimori government, interim President Valentn Paniagua, established a Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate the conflict. The Commission found in its 2003 Final Report that 69,280 people died or disappeared between 1980 and 2000 as a result of the armed conflict.[48] About 54% of the deaths and disappearances reported to the Commission were caused by the Shining Path.[49] A statistical analysis of the available data led the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to estimate that the Shining Path was responsible for the death or disappearance of 31,331 people, 46% of the total deaths and disappearances.[48] According to a summary of the report by Human Rights Watch, "Shining Path… killed about half the victims, and roughly one-third died at the hands of government security forces… The commission attributed some of the other slayings to a smaller guerrilla group and local militias. The rest remain unattributed."[50] The MRTA was held responsible for 1.5% of the deaths.[51]

[edit]
Capture of Guzmn and collapse

On September 12, 1992, Peruvian police captured Guzmn and several Shining Path leaders in an apartment above a dance studio in the Surquillo district of Lima. The police had been monitoring the apartment, as a number of suspected Shining Path militants had visited it. An inspection of the garbage of the apartment produced empty tubes of a skin cream used to treat psoriasis, a condition that Guzmn was known to have. Shortly after the raid that captured Guzmn, most of the remaining Shining Path leadership fell as well.[52] At the same time, the Shining Path suffered embarrassing military defeats to self-defense organizations of rural campesinos — supposedly its social base. When Guzmn called for peace talks, the organization fractured into splinter groups, with some Shining Path members in favor of such talks and others opposed.[53] Guzmn's role as the leader of the Shining Path was taken over by scar Ramrez, who himself was captured by Peruvian authorities in 1999. After Ramrez's capture, the group splintered, guerrilla activity diminished sharply, and previous conditions returned to the areas where the Shining Path had been active.[54]

[edit]
21st century and resurgence

Although the organization's numbers had lessened by 2003,[54] a militant faction of the Shining Path called Proseguir (or "Onward") continued to be active.[55] It is believed that the faction consists of three companies known as the North, or Pangoa, the Centre, or Pucuta, and the South, or Vizcatan. The government claims that Proseguir is operating in alliance with drug traffickers.

On March 21, 2002, a car bomb exploded outside the American embassy in Lima just before a visit by U.S. President George W. Bush. Nine people were killed and 30 were injured; the attack was blamed on the Shining Path.[56]

On June 9, 2003, a Shining Path group attacked a camp in Ayacucho, and took 68 employees of the Argentinian company Techint and three police guards as hostages. They had been working in the Camisea gas pipeline project that would take natural gas from Cusco to Lima.[57] According to sources from Peru's Interior Ministry, the terrorists asked for a sizable ransom to free the hostages. Two days later, after a rapid military response, the terrorists abandoned the hostages; according to government sources no ransom was paid.[58] However, there were rumors that US$200,000 was paid to the rebels.[59]

Government forces have successfully captured three leading Shining Path members. In April 2000, Commander Jos Arcela Chiroque, called "Ormeo", was captured, followed by another leader, Florentino Cerrn Cardozo, called "Marcelo" in July 2003. In November of the same year, Jaime Zuiga, called "Cirilo" or "Dalton," was arrested after a clash in which four guerrillas were killed and an officer wounded.[60] Officials said he took part in planning the kidnapping of the Techint pipeline workers. He was also thought to have led an ambush against an army helicopter in 1999 in which five soldiers died.

In 2003, the Peruvian National Police broke up several Shining Path training camps and captured many members and leaders.[61] It also freed about 100 indigenous people held in virtual slavery.[62] By late October 2003 there were 96 terrorist incidents in Peru, projecting a 15% decrease from the 134 kidnappings and armed attacks in 2002.[61] Also for the year, eight[62] or nine[61] people were killed by Shining Path, and 6 senderistas were killed and 209 captured.[61]
 
Comrade Artemio

In January 2004, a man known as Comrade Artemio and identifying himself as one of the Shining Path leaders said in a media interview that the group would resume violent operations unless the Peruvian government granted amnesty to other top Shining Path leaders within 60 days.[63] Peru's Interior Minister, Fernando Rospigliosi, said that the government would respond "drastically and swiftly" to any violent action. In September that same year, a comprehensive sweep by police in five cities found 17 suspected members. According to the interior minister, eight of the arrested were school teachers and high-level school administrators.[64]

Despite these arrests, the Shining Path continues to exist in Peru. On December 22, 2005, the Shining Path ambushed a police patrol in the Hunuco region, killing eight.[65] Later that day they wounded an additional two police officers. In response, then President Alejandro Toledo declared a state of emergency in Hunuco, and gave the police the power to search houses and arrest suspects without a warrant. On February 19, 2006, the Peruvian police killed Hctor Aponte, believed to be the commander responsible for the ambush.[66] In December 2006, Peruvian troops were sent to counter renewed guerrilla activity and, according to high level government officials, the Shining Path's strength has reached an estimated 300 members.[67] In November 2007, police claimed to have killed Artemio's second-in-command, a guerrilla known as JL.[68]

In September 2008, government forces announced the killing of five rebels in the Vizcatan region. This claim has subsequently been challenged by the APRODEH, a Peruvian human rights group, which believes that those who were killed were in fact local farmers and not rebels.[69] That same month, Artemio gave his first recorded interview since 2006. In it he stated that the Shining Path would continue to fight despite escalating military pressure.[70] In October 2008, in Huancavelica Region, the guerrillas engaged a military convoy with explosives and firearms, demonstrating their continued ability to strike and inflict casualties on military targets. The conflict resulted in the death of 12 soldiers and two to seven civilians.[71][72] It came one day after a clash in the Vizcatan region, which left five rebels and one soldier dead.[73] In November 2008, the rebels utilized hand grenades and automatic weapons in an assault that claimed the lives of 4 police.[74] In April 2009, the Shining Path ambushed and killed 13 government soldiers in Ayacucho.[75] Grenades and dynamite were used in the attack.[75] The dead included eleven soldiers and one captain and two soldiers were also injured, with one reported missing.[75] Poor communications were said to have made relay of the news difficult.[75] The country's Defence Minister, Antero Flores Aroz claimed many soldiers "plunged over a cliff".[75] His Prime Minister Yehude Simon said these attacks were "desperate responses by the Shining Path in the face of advances by the armed forces", and expressed his belief that the area would soon be freed of "leftover terrorists".[75] In the aftermath, a Sendero leader called this "the strongest [anti-government] blow... ...in quite a while".

Оффлайн Vuntean

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Перу
« Ответ #1 : 14/02/12 , 01:04:44 »
В Перу пойман лидер повстанческой группировки "Сияющий путь"

ЛИМА, 13 февраля. В Перу арестован единственный находившийся на свободе лидер леворадикальной повстанческой группировки "Сияющий путь" (Sendero luminoso) Флориндо Флорес.

Флорес, также известный как "товарищ Артемио", был пойман в одном из удаленных районов в центральной части Перу. Он был тяжело ранен и доставлен в одну из больниц Лимы, где врачи вытащили из его желудка две пули. По заявлению министра обороны Перу, Флорес пострадал в ходе перестрелки с пытавшимися задержать его военными, однако местные СМИ сообщили, что его мог ранить один из сторонников, намеревавшийся сдать его властям для получения выкупа.

Перуанские власти охотились за Флоресом на протяжении многих лет. Как сообщает Lenta.ru, в 2010 году за помощь в его поимке была объявлена многомиллионная награда. В настоящее время остается неясным, как именно военным удалось вычислить местонахождение "товарища Артемио".

Группировка "Сияющий путь", исповедующая идеи радикального маоизма, была основана в начале 1960-х годов, а в 1980 году ее участники начали вооруженную борьбу против правительства. Расцвет влияния "Пути" пришелся на 1980-е годы, когда организация фактически контролировала несколько районов страны, опираясь в основном на поддержку беднейших слоев населения.

С 1992 года, когда основатель группировки Абимаэль Гусман был схвачен перуанскими властями, ее влияние постепенно начало угасать. В настоящее время "Сияющий путь" насчитывает несколько сотен членов и в основном проводит разовые акции против полиции и правительственных войск в удаленных районах страны.

Согласно данным, опубликованным властями Перу в 2003 году, жертвами конфликта между правительством страны и сторонниками "Сияющего пути" за весь его период стали почти 70 тыс. человек.

"Сияющий путь" признан террористической организацией в Перу, а также в США, Канаде и странах Евросоюза.
Подробнее: http://www.rosbalt.ru/main/2012/02/13/944962.html

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Перу
« Ответ #2 : 29/02/12 , 23:16:18 »
Цветок Сьерры



Говорят, во многих домишках бедняков андских департаментов Аякучо, Уанкавелика и Хунин можно увидеть искусно вырезанные статуэтки Эдит Лагос – маленькая хрупкая девушка обнимает цветущее плодовое деревцо. Ее могила в Аякучо стала местной святыней. Трижды эскадроны смерти взрывали ее, но трудящиеся каждый раз бережно восстанавливали место последнего упокоения Эдит, наново выбивая на каменной плите стихотворение, написанное когда-то самой погибшей. И каждый год в годовщину ее смерти на этой могиле появляется множество желтых цветов, которые она так любила.
Юная красавица Эдит Лагос с отличием закончила католическую школу в Аякучо, обожала смотреть индийские кинофильмы. Однако бедняцкая молодежь Сьерры жаждет новой, лучшей жизни, и наступления этой жизни ждет от социальной революции. Уже в 16 лет Эдит, вместе со многими своими земляками, приходит в профсоюзное движение, вступает в маоистскую Коммунистическую партию Перу, известную как «Светлый путь» («Sendero Luminoso»). В партии этой женщины играли очень важную роль; угнетаемые сотни лет, особенно индианки, они становятся борцами и строителями нового общества, вызывая ненависть реакционеров. Известно, что треть бойцов «Сендеро» составляли именно женщины, а в руководстве партии их была половина.
Убежденность и способности совсем молодой девчонки Лагос быстро выдвигают ее в ведущие партийные агитаторы Южной Сьерры, она несколько раз арестовывалась и избивалась полицией.
После ухода в партизаны Эдит становится командиром отряда. Весной 1982 года именно она командует успешным рейдом, в результате которого взята штурмом тюрьма и освобождены более трех сотен содержавшихся там политзаключенных. А 3 сентября 1982 года, 26 лет назад, отряд Лагос был разбит в бою с вооруженной до зубов частью республиканской гвардии Перу. Тяжело раненая Эдит попала в плен, озверелая солдатня реакционного режима долго насиловала ее, мучила, а затем заколола штыками.
Трагическая судьба девушки-революционерки, их землячки, отдавшей свои молодость и жизнь ради счастья трудового народа, затронула самые глубинные струны сердец перуанских индейцев. С тех пор Эдит – любимая народная героиня Сьерры. Когда отец Лагос вез выданное властями истерзанное тело дочери в Аякучо, то ему приходилось очень часто останавливаться – в деревнях и прямо на дороге повозку окружали толпы бедных крестьян, чтобы попрощаться с погибшей партизанкой. Открыто нарушив запрет властей, на похороны Эдит пришли более 30 тысяч человек – больше половины населения города Аякучо.

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