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Эстония
« : 01/07/09 , 00:05:25 »


Communist Party of Estonia (in Estonian: Eestimaa Kommunistlik Partei, in Russian: Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Estonii; EKP) was a political party in Estonia.

EKP was formed November 5, 1920, as the Central Committee of the Estonian Sections of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) was separated from its mother party. During the first half of 1920s the hopes to an immediate world revolution were still held, and Estonian communists had their own hopes of restoring their power. Widespread economic and social crisis gave lots of support for that kind of hopes. Activists of the party had not only to support the agenda, but also to be ready to participate in the illegal actions, such as organising conspirative apartments, transporting weapons and communist propaganda materials, hide undercover activists and collect information for the revolutionaries. It resulted in a standing conflict situation with the governments. As oriented not to the legal goals EKP never tried to legalise itself in the Estonian Republic, as well as didn't abandon demands for the armed uprising and joining Estonia to the USSR.

Although EKP had dropped much below from their popularity of 1917, it still had remarkable support mostly amongst the industrial proletariat, but occasionally also amongst the landless peasants, unemployed, teachers and students. Especially in the 1920s it had strong positions in the trade union movement. In the parliamentary elections EKP front organisations took always more than 5% of the vote. However, following the failed coup attempt by the Estonian communists on December 1, 1924, the party lost this support and membership fell to around 70 to 200 people and remained low until 1940. According to the ECP's own records, there were only 150 party members at the time of the Soviet occupation in July 1940.Contents [hide]
1 History
1.1 Merger with the CPSU
1.2 Split of 1990
1.3 First Secretaries of the Communist Party of Estonia
1.4 Chairman of the Estonian Communist Party
1.5 Prominent Estonian communists
1.6 See also


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History

Like in the rest of the Russian empire, the RSDLP branches in the Governorate of Estonia had been ravaged by division between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. In 1912 the Bolsheviks started a publication, Kiir, in Narva. In June 1914 the party took a decision to create a special Central Committee of RSDLP(b) of Estonia, named the Northern-Baltic Committee of the RSDLP(b)" (Estonian: VSDT(b)P Phja-Balti Komitee).

After the February Revolution, as in the rest of the empire, Bolsheviks started to gain popularity with their demands to end the war immediately, as well as their support for fast land reform and originally even ethnic claims (to introduce Estonian as an official language parallel to Russian). During the summer of 1917 Bolsheviks and their supporters took the control over the Tallinn Soviet.

By the end of 1917 Estonian Bolsheviks were stronger than ever - holding control over political power and having significant support - remarkably more than in Russia. In the elections into the Russian Constituent Assembly their list got 40,2% of the votes in Estonia and 4 out of 8 seats allocated to Estonia. The support for the party did however start to decline, and the Estonian Constituent Assembly election of January 1918 was never completed. Moreover the party faced the situation in which it had difficulty building alliances. Their opponents, the Democratic Bloc, was able to initiate cooperation with the Labour Party, Mensheviks and the Socialist-Revolutionary Party. Those parties supported different ideas but were united around the demand for an independent or Finland-linked Estonia and wished to distribute land to the peasants. In the first question the Estonian Bolsheviks, although having introduced Estonian as an official language after their takeover, promoted the idea of Estonia as a part of Soviet Russia. In the land reform policy, Estonian Bolsheviks continued to support immediate collectivisation.

Bolshevik rule in Estonia was ended by the German invasion in the end of February 1918. The party branch continued to function in exile in Russia.

After the German revolution in November, when an Estonian government took office, the party together with support of Soviet troops attempted an armed attack against the new state. However, by this time the support for the party had waned, and it failed to mobilize mass support for revolutionary warfare. An Estonian Workers' Commune was set up, but with limited real influence. At this time the party branch had been reorganized into the Central Committee of the Estonian Sections of the RCP(b) (Estonian: Venemaa Kommunistliku (bolshevike) Partei Eesti Sektsioonide Keskkomitee). After the war a reorientation was found to be necessary (since Estonia was now an independent state) by the central leadership of the RCP(b) and thus on the November 5, 1920 the Communist Party of Estonia (EKP) was founded as a separate party.

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Merger with the CPSU
Main article: Communist Party of the Soviet Union

In 1940 EKP was merged into the CPSU(b). The territorial organization of CPSU(b) in the Estonian SSR became known as Communist Party of Estonia (bolshevik) (EK(b)P).

The EK(b)P was purged in 1950 of many of its original native leaders[citation needed]; they were replaced by several prominent Russian Estonians who had grown up in Russia[citation needed].

When the CPSU(b) changed its name in 1952, the EK(b)P removed the (b) from its name.

[edit]
Split of 1990

EKP was divided in 1990, as the pro-sovereignty majority faction of EKP separated itself from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and became the Estonian Democratic Labour Party. The minority faction of pro-Soviet hardliners reconstituted themselves as the Communist Party of Estonia (CPSU platform).

[edit]
First Secretaries of the Communist Party of Estonia
Karl Sre August 28, 1940 - 1943
Nikolai Karotamm (acting, in Russian SFSR exile to September 1944) 1943 - September 28, 1944
Nikolai Karotamm September 28, 1944 - April, 1950
Johannes Kbin April 1950 - July 26, 1978
Karl Vaino July 26, 1978 - June 16, 1988
Vaino Vljas June 16, 1988 - April, 1990

[edit]
Chairman of the Estonian Communist Party
Vaino Vljas ("Leading" role of the party abolished 1990) April, 1990 - August, 1991

[edit]
Prominent Estonian communists
Viktor Kingissepp
Jakob Palvadre
Harald Tummeltau
Jaan Anvelt
Karl Sre
August Kork
Johannes Vares

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Re: Эстония
« Ответ #1 : 01/07/09 , 00:06:13 »
Communist Party of Estonia (1990)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia    This article's factual accuracy is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. (May 2008)


Communist Party of Estonia (in Estonian: Eestimaa Kommunistlik Partei, in Russian: Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Estonii) is a political party in Estonia.[citation needed] The party, initially known as Communist Party of Estonia (on CPSU platform) (EKP(NLKP platvormil), and was formed in 1990 through a split in the original EKP. The occued at the 20th congress of EKP in March 1990, as a reaction against the decision of the congress to separate EKP from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Immediately after the independence decision of EKP, the pro-Soviet delegates left the congress venue. The convened their own rival 20th congress on March 26, 1990.[1] EKP(NLKP platvormil) elected its own Central Committee, headed by its First Secretary Alexander Gusev, and would function as a separate party from EKP.[2][3]

The party was often perceived, along with Intermovement, as representing the resistance of the Russian population in Estonia against independence. However unlike the split in the Communist Party of Latvia, the split in EKP did not follow ethnic lines. A study on the electoral patterns of the 1990 Estonian Supreme Soviet election showed that the EKP(NLKP platvormil) candidates had a support of just 13.3% of the non-Estonian voters.[4][3] Notably, when the split in EKP occurred in 1990 party units in Russian-dominated town like Narva, Sillame and Kohtla-Jrve decided to retain their membership in EKP rather than joining EKP(NLKP platvormil).[5]

Unlike the analogous split in the Communist Party of Latvia, EKP(NLKP platvormil) failed to gain control over any major portion of the resources and personnel of the EKP after the split.[5]

On June 20, 1990 the name of the party was changed to Communist Party of Estonia (CPSU) (EKP(NLKP).[6]

EKP (NLKP) held its 21st Party Congress in the fall of 1990 (counting the twenty party congresses of EKP as theirs). The congress elected an Estonian, Lembit Annus, as the new First Secretary. With the new leadership followed a less confrontational approach that its Latvian counterpart.[3] In April 1991 Annus expressed willingness to enter a coalition government in Estonia.[7]

Parallel to the March 3, 1991 referendum on Estonian indepedence, the party organized a referendum of its own. The vote took place in the cities Kohtla-Jrve, Sillame and Narva. The question of the referendum was "Do you want the sovereign Estonia to remain within the composition of the USSR?". Unlike the main referendum, all residents (including Soviet troops) could take part. Only the results from Sillame were made public, with a turnout of 83%. 89% of the voters in Sillame had voted yes in the referendum.[8]

The party supported the August 1991 coup. Following the defeat of the coup, the party was declared illegal by the Estonian government on August 22, 1991.[9][8] At the time Central Committee secretary of the party was Pavel Panfilov.[10]

Reportedly, a very small group of militants carried on their cause, initially their grouping was affiliated with the Union of Communist Parties - Communist Party of the Soviet Union (SKP-KPSS)[11], but when SKP-KPSS split in 2001 they joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union of Oleg Shenin. The party carried out a congress in 1999, and elected a Central Committee.[12] In 2005, it was claimed that the only known member of the grouping is Juri Miin, a leader of ethnic Russian nationalists; and that the party itself only existed in CPSU lists.[13]

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External links